Jual Mesin Pertambangan Emas, Metal & Mineral
Gambar mesin pertambangan emas dll bisa dilihat di http://mesinemas.blogspot.com
SURFACE GOLD MINING EQUIPMENTS AGENT
FROM WASH PLANT, RECOVERY SYSTEM & CLEAN UP SYSTEM FOR GOLD MINING
Pembukaan lahan pertambangan emas besar, menengah dan pertambangan emas kelas rakyat di Indonesia saat ini sangat dasyat, ibarat Amerika yang mengalami gold rush di sekitar tahun 1848 an, Indonesia juga mengalami gold fever atau demam emas, oleh karena itu ketersediaan mining equipments atau mesin mesin industri untuk pertambangan emas skala kecil, menengah dan besar mutlak dibutuhkan, disinilah kami hadir untuk memenuhi segala kebutuhan para penambang sekalian untuk masalah mesin pertambangan, khususnya mesin pertambangan emas.
Begitu juga untuk industri kerajinan emas dan perhiasan di Indonesia berkembang sangat pesat, kalangan pengrajin di skala paling kecil dan menengah sangat membutuhkan mesin untuk menunjang usaha kerajinan tersebut, padahal mesin mesin tsb berharga sangat mahal, dan mayoritas harus di import dari negara Eropa bahkan China, kami hadir sebagai hand made dan made to order manufaktur mesin mesin perhiasan.
1 – 2 TAHUN INI, PERMINTAAN AKAN MESIN MESIN PERTAMBANGAN EMAS SANGAT BESAR, IBARAT ‘AIR BAH’, BAIK YANG SKALA KECIL DAN MENENGAH, MENGINGAT KEBUTUHAN PARA PENAMBANG TIDAK BISA DIPISAHKAN OLEH KEBERADAAN PAKET ATAU UNIT MESIN MESIN PERTAMBANGAN YANG EFEKTIF DAN EFISIEN, SEBAGIAN BESAR PRODUSEN ALAT PERTAMBANGAN TERBAIK DI DUNIA KHUSUSNYA EMAS SUDAH KAMI KENAL DENGAN BAIK, HAL TSB LEBIH MEMUDAHKAN DALAM MELAKUKAN PURCHASE ORDER & KERJASAMA BISNIS.
MODAL KAMI ADALAH HUBUNGAN BAIK DENGAN PARA PRODUSEN MESIN MESIN PERTAMBANGAN TERNAMA DUNIA, TERMASUK PRODUSEN METAL DETECTOR TERBAIK DI DUNIA MINELAB AUSTRALIA, KHUSUS DETEKSI EMAS-ALL METAL & MINERAL, BISA MENDETEKSI TARGET DI KEDALAMAN 60 CM S/D 1,5 METER, HARGA USD 600 – 6000 AN/UNIT, GPR RADAR UNTUK PENETRASI BAWAH TANAH, BISA MENDETEKSI TARGET DI KEDALAMAN 30 METER, HARGA USD 15.000 – 50.000 & 3D APPARATUS SURVEY BAWAH TANAH, BISA MENDETEKSI TARGET DI KEDALAMAN 60 METER, HARGA USD 25.000 – 75.000! (HARGA BELUM TERMASUK BIAYA KIRIM, DUTY, TAXES & KOMITMEN FEE). ALAT-ALAT TSB KHUSUS UNTUK MENCARI EMAS-ALL METAL, MINERAL SERTA TREASURY-HARTA KARUN DI HALAMAN RUMAH DAN AREA SEKITAR ANDA.
*** READY STOCK 3 UNIT MINELAB METAL DETECTOR TIPE EUREKA GOLD, TIPE PALING LARIS DI DUNIA DARI PREMIUM BRAND METAL DETECTOR “MINELAB AUSTRALIA”, HARGA USD1200, FIRST COME FIRST SERVE, CEPAT DAPAT***
TIPS UNTUK METAL DETECTORIST : YANG MEMBEDAKAN EMAS & METAL YANG LAIN ADALAH KARENA EMAS ADALAH KONDUKTOR TERBAIK DI DUNIA, BILA KOIL METAL DETEKTOR ANDA MENGENAI TARGET TSB, VOLUME TONE/NADA AKAN MELENGKING TINGGI DIBANDINGKAN BILA TARGET ADALAH NON EMAS!
KAMI JUGA MEMASOK MESIN MESIN WASH PLANT SEPERTI CONVEYORS, GRIZZLY, FEEDER, SCREEN VIBRATOR, TROMMELS, JAW-Hammer-Cone CRUSHER, BALL MILL, MINI SAG (SEMI AUTOGENOUS GRINDING) DLL, DAN MESIN MESIN RECOVERY & CLEAN UP SYSTEM SEPERTI MEJA GRAVITASI BASAH-WAVE TABLE, MEJA KONSENTRATOR, 1 PAKET MESIN EX IMPORT LEACHING REAKTOR YANG SANGAT CANGGIH, SENTRIFUGAL KONSENTRATOR. MESIN MESIN TSB BUATAN INDONESIA, CANADA, AFRIKA SELATAN, USA, AUSTRALIA, THAILAND, CHINA DLL.
- Kami menerima jasa Set Up A to Z mesin mesin industri pertambangan emas, baik skala kecil dan menengah (besar) di lahan pertambangan emas anda, mulai lini produksi wash plant, recovery system & clean up system, dengan mesin mesin yang tepat sesuai kebutuhan dan budget anda.
- Sedia & Manufaktur : Tabung Leaching Reaktor Sianida-Karbon Aktif buatan anak negeri, Amalgamation Barrels-Glondongan-Hg-Air Raksa, NaCN, Bahan kimia Secret Formula untuk Recovery Emas dan PGM (Platinum Group Metal) ex USA, VIDEO TUTORIAL 2 JAM KHUSUS UNTUK RECOVERY PGM ex USA, berpartner dengan rekanan untuk jasa explorasi drilling/pengeboran beberapa titik di lahan anda untuk mengambil contoh tanah/batuan untuk keperluan tes Lab dll.
- Siap Kerjasama bagi hasil 35:66 untuk pemilik lahan, semua biaya investasi, manufaktur, modal kerja awal-start up dll -+ Rp 100 – 250 jt (tergantung kapasitas yang di butuhkan) ditanggung pemilik lahan, operasional sehari hari mesin2 wash plant, recovery & cleap up system dengan Leaching NaCN+Karbon Aktif atau Flotasi menjadi tanggung jawab kami, kontrak kerjasama minimal 3 tahun, btw sistem Leaching tsb sangat maksimal dan tingkat recovery emasnya bisa diatas 90%, berminat? Hub Hary Setiawan 0812.1306.4569
Daerah atau lahan yang kaya mengandung emas seharusnya dimanfaatkan untuk kesejahteraan rakyat sekitar, tahun 2008 sahabat saya berbicara langsung dengan bapak Presiden SBY, bahwa hutang pemerintah bisa dilunasi “hanya” dengan kekayaan sumber alam di daerah JAWA TIMUR saja, beliau meresponnya dan memerintahkan asistennya untuk menindaklanjuti informasi dari teman saya tsb.
Coba bayangkan, demam emas terjadi di daerah Ponorogo, Pacitan, Trenggalek, Tulung Agung, Blitar, Malang, Jember, Banyuwangi dll, ini belum di luar Jawa, misalnya Papua, hampir di seluruh Sulawesi, Lombok barat, Padang, Bogor, Kalimantan Tengah dll, luar biasa sekali kekayaan alam ini, tetapi sayang pemerintah pusat dan daerah hanya memprioritaskan segelintir pengusaha bermodal kuat yang mampu memiliki (membeli) ijin pertambangan, yang kemudian mengexplorasi, mengexploitasi daerah dimana sebagian besar masyarakatnya miskin yang nantinya hanya sebagai penonton, mereka bekerjasama erat dengan pemerintah daerah, menindas semua rakyat desa yang ingin ikut menambang secra tradisional, malah klien kami bercerita, saat para PETI masuk hutan mulai mencari emas, para oknum keamanan mendiamkan saja, tetapi begitu mereka keluar hutan, (yang diperkirakan sudah membawa hasil) para oknum keamanan tsb langsung meringkus dan menangkap para PETI tsb, hasil dulangan mereka berupa emas langsung disita, ditahan, seperti yang persis kita baca dan lihat di TV atau koran, entah bagaimana nasib BB atau barang bukti tsb, pasal berapa yang mereka pakai, mboh lah…tambah bingung, padahal oknum keamanan tsb juga bagian dari masyarakat kecil, yang seharusnya melindungi.
Alangkah naif melihat fenomena tsb, bahkan beberapa klien kami PETI di daerah Banyuwangi mengatakan, mereka tidak perlu BLT, tapi ijinkan mereka menambang, mencari emas untuk memberi makan keluarga, mereka berjanji tidak akan merusak lingkungan dengan memakai alat yang berbahan kimia atau menggali lubang lubang tikus di lahan tsb, ini kisah nyata yang disampaikan masyarakat desa dimana daerahnya telah terindikasi banyak mengandung emas, di daerah Gunung Pitu-Banyuwangi.
Formula yang ingin kami sampaikan ini minimal untuk wacana bagi pembaca blog ini, syukur pemerintah sudi membaca dan mempertimbangkannya, yaitu para penambang liar atau PETI harus diijinkan mencari emas tetapi dengan cara yang tidak merusak lingkungan, misalnya dengan mendulang memakai wajan atau gold panning, dengan meja konsentrat gravitasi basah, dengan sluice box atau karpet dll masih banyak jenis mesin recovery emas yang tidak merusak lingkungan, karena tidak memakai bahan kimia, sangsi keras dan hukuman penjara atau denda senilai ratusan bahkan milyaran rupiah bila mereka terbukti sebagai PETI merusak lingkungan dengan memakai bahan kimia atau menggali lubang sumur dalam.
Wacana diatas sangat fair menurut kami, biarkan rakyat desa menikmati kekayaan alam bumi pertiwinya, asalkan tidak membahayakan lingkungan, kalau alasan pemerintah bahwa PETI menghilangkan potensi pemasukan dari sektor Pajak yang mungkin hilang, please deh…kita introspeksi…berapa banyak kekayaan negara lenyap ditelan koruptor koruptor pejabat dan oknum oknum, SPECIAL ORDINARY CRIME atau Korupsi di Indonesia sangat memelaratkan rakyat di semua sektor kehidupan, kalau dalihnya seperti itu, tidak akan ada lagi orang yang peduli dengan masyarakat miskin, duluan mana telur dengan ayam? Susah menjawabnya!
Dear VVIP Gold Miner Clients
Thank you for your enquiry regarding Wave Tables M5, M8 & M10. We an agent in Indonesia
Wave Tables are an innovative, wet gravity separation, concentration and recovery device for most heavy minerals, especially gold.
Action Mining USA Manufacture and supply, three basic models of the Wave Table, the smallest is M5, the medium sized M7/M8 and the large M10.
Regarding the three models of Wave Table, below is some information.
Through puts are in tonnes per hour of ore. Water usage is in litres per minute.
Model M5, capacity 20kgs/hr, 5-10 amps DC power plug to 220v, 12volt drive motor, water usage 10L/min, motor 1/4 PK, weight 77 kgs, price US$3695 plus air freight from USA, set up to deliver take around 1-2 weeks to your nearest airport.
Model M7/M8, capacity 1/2 to 1 TPH, 10 amps single phase motor 220-240v/50Hz, water usage 20L/minute, weight 195 kgs, motor 1/2 PK, price US$5490 plus air freight, set up to deliver take around 2-4 weeks to your nearest airport.
Model M10, capacity 2 to 8TPH, need 3 KW motor 3 phase genset 10 KVA, water usage 60 to 80 L/min, weight 1000 kgs, price US$27.940 plus ocean freight, set up to deliver take around 4-6 weeks to your nearest seaport.
We also do a ‘Combo’ an M7/M8 plus M10 (both Tables) for $32.118 plus freight, set up to deliver take around 5-7 weeks to your nearest seaport. All models has 275-320 stroke per minutes.
We would be pleased to help you with any technical matter etc. regarding the operation of these Wave Tables.
PT. Imperium Centrebiz
Cell : 62.812.1306.4569
(An Official Agent of Micron Wave Table & MineLab Metal Detector for Indonesia Market in associated with Action Mining AU)
On behalf of :
Mr. Ian Freeland
Action Mining (Sydney, Australia)
4 School Parade, Padstow NSW 2211 Australia
Cell/mob 61- 429 822 954
(Main Distributor of Action Mining USA & MineLab Metal Detector For Indonesia Market in Associated With PT. Imperium Centrebiz Surabaya-Indonesia)
NB : Sistem recovery emas dengan meja gravitasi basah-wave table ini sangat sederhana, efektif, efisien, murah dan maksimal hasilnya, kami ingin memasarkan produk ini ke seantero Nusantara bagi para penambang kecil dan menengah, alat atau mesin ini sangat cocok digunakan di daerah, wilayah, lahan tambang (emas) yang banyak mengandung placer deposit atau alluvial, indikasinya terlihat bila banyak penambang atau gold prospectors yang memakai karpet atau Sluice Box dan wajan-mendulang-nggembang.
Bagi VVIP klien penambang yang membutuhkan jasa kami, pemesanan dan pembelian mesin mesin pertambangan emas, ada KOMITMEN FEE Agen Mesin Pertambangan Emas yang harus di bayar di muka sebesar 1% dari TEVEP (Total Estimation Value Equipments Purchase-Order) dan atau minimal Rp. 5 jt, mana yang lebih besar atau 2% dibayar dimuka, berapapun nilainya.
Total komisi 2% dari Total Estimasi Nilai Pembelian Peralatan atau TEVEP
Komitmen Fee atau Biaya tsb untuk keperluan transportasi, korespondensi, telekomunikasi, kordinasi dll dengan para suppliers produser mesin mesin pertambangan, baik lokal dan international.
Komitmen Fee ibarat DP (Uang Muka) yang harus anda bayar bila memesan Stone-Jaw Crusher, Ball Mill dll kepada bengkel manufaktur, hal tsb sebagai ikatan-tanda jadi & komitmen untuk hak dan kewajiban masing masing pihak!!!
Sisa 1% dibayarkan kepada Agen Mesin Pertambangan setelah buyer sign contract purchase agreement dan sejumlah DP dibayarkan kepada equipments supplier atau producers.
Rekening Bank Mandiri 1420004273818 & BCA 5060129128 a/n Hary Setiawan
Surabaya. June 9th, 2009
Kepada Yth VVIP Small Gold Miners Clients
Saya sertakan flow sheet atau lini produksi untuk small-medium scale gold plant di lahan anda, singkat kata saya cantumkan jenis alat dan kisaran harganya sesuai kapasitas mesin mesin yang bapak butuhkan sekitar 5-10 tph al :
I. Wash Plant : mesin mesin yang dipergunakan di lini hulu, untuk mencuci, mengalirkan bahan mentah melalui conveyor, memisahkan batu berukuran besar, sedang dan kecil dengan Grizzly dan Trommel serta Screen serta mengrinding/menghaluskan batu ukuran sekitar 15-50 cm sedang-besar ke dalam Impact/Jaw Crusher, setelah output size berukuran sekitar 1-3 cm baru kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam Ball Mill, untuk melembutkan batuan tsb menjadi otput size sekitar mess 100-400
Mesin mesin tsb al :
- Conveyors, – Grizzly, – Feeder, – Screen
- Trommel Rp 25 – 250 jt/unit
- Impact/Jaw Crusher Rp 45 – 400 jt/unit
- Ball Mill Rp 85 – 600 jt/unit
Hanya mesin yang urgent anda butuhkan saja yang saya beri harga “range” atau kisaran yang sangat lebar, karena harga produk lokal, China, Thailand, Australia, Canada, Afrika Selatan dan USA berbeda jauh.
II. Recovery System : Proses pertengahan di lini produksi, setelah bahan mentah (ore), batuan sudah lembut, kemudian (baru ideal untuk) dimasukkan mesin mesin recovery system ini, mesin mesin tsb ada yang memakai proses dengan bahan kimia atau 100% non kimia dengan tabling atau meja gravitasi basah/kering misalnya, maksud dan tujuannya adalah merecovery emas yang terdapat di batuan, tanah, pasir, ore dll. Emas bisa berwujud out of alluvial or placer atau partikel halus, lembut, butiran micron, pasir maupun nugget, tetapi juga bisa juga terikat dengan logam lain seperti Iron Pyrites, Iron Sulphides, Arseno Pyrites, polly metalic minerals dll, untuk menangkap emas yang berwujud butiran halus dan lembut (nugget harus ditangkap dengan gold trapp) dengan meja gravitasi basah sangat efektif dan efisien serta relatif murah, untuk menangkap emas yang terikat dengan partikel lain bisa dengan proses Amalgamasi dengan Hg-Air Raksa, atau di bakar/roaster dahulu untuk memudahkan proses berikutnya misalnya Flotasi atau Leaching.
Mesin mesin tsb al :
- Ore Roater Rp 50 – 250 jt/unit
- Gravitation Tabling/Meja Gravitasi Rp 65 – 300 jt/unit/meja
- Amalgamasi/Gelondong+Training Rp 35 jt/set/4 tabung
III. Clean Up System : Proses akhir di lini produksi, dengan memakai bahan kimia Sianida+Karbon Aktif untuk merecovery emas yang terikat dengan partikel lain.
Mesin mesin tsb al :
- Leacing Reactor import > Rp 1 M
- Tabung Leaching-Flotasi Reaktor lokal (NaCN+karbon Aktif+Training) Rp 100 – 250 jt
IV. Term and condition untuk merealisasi kerjasama diantara kita adalah :
1. Investor atau penambang memberikan ikatan tanda jadi kepada kami a/n PT. Imperium Centrebiz/PT. ICB Surabaya sebagai Agen Mesin Pertambangan, berupa komitmen fee sebesar 2% dari total harga perkiraan mesin mesin yang dipesan, dibayar 1% atau 50% di depan atau sebesar minimal Rp 5 jt, mana yang lebih besar, atau 2% dibayarkan dimuka, berapapun nilainya.
Sisa fee dibayarkan saat investor atau penambang membayar DP kepada produsen atau supplier mesin mesin pertambangan yang dipesannya.
2. Setelah menerima ikatan tanda jadi atau komitmen fee, PT. ICB mengurus semua mesin mesin yang dipesan oleh Investor atau penambang ke produsen atau supplier baik lokal ataupun import yang telah dipilih oleh Investor atau penambang dan membantu semaksimal mungkin keperluan investor atau penambang sesuai dengan kapasitas sebagai konsultan-agen mesin mesin pertambangan (kami bukan konsultan pertambangan atau geologist).
3. Biaya lain lain yang mungkin akan timbul, misal PT. ICB diminta untuk set up atau supervisi di lapangan dll, akan dibebankan kepada investor atau penambang ybs, untuk nilai dan besaran nominalnya bisa dikondisikan dengan prinsip win-win.
Atas segala perhatian dan kerjasamanya, kami ucapkan banyak terima kasih, besar harapan kami semoga flow sheet sederhana untuk pertambangan emas skala kecil-menengah dari kami sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan budget usaha pertambangan bapak.
PT. Imperium Centrebiz
Pantai Mentari W3, Kenjeran
HOW MINELAB METAL DETECTORS WORK
VLF (very low frequency) ground canceling metal detectors work on the principle of conductivity. These metal detectors will locate any metal with a conductive surface within 45-60 cm (18″ to two feet) of the ground surface. A signal is heard because an electromagnetic field is generated and caused to flow out into space away from the search coil. As the lines of the electromagnetic field penetrate the surface of the metal, tiny circulating electrical currents called eddy currents are caused to flow in the surface of the metal. These eddy currents then generate their own electromagnetic fields which radiate in all directions in space. Those currents which radiate directly upwards toward the receiver’s search coil windings are picked up. A reduced voltage is then fed into the amplifying wires where it is conditioned to drive a loudspeaker, meter or headphones. The larger the surface, the greater the signal.
Metal detectors do not react to mass but to surface area. In other words, a flat coin will make a larger signal than a coin on its edge.
Most VLF metal detectors are equipped with an alternative mode called a TR discriminator mode. This mode is 90% accurate in being able to discriminate between two classes of non-ferrous and ferrous (iron containing) substances:
* gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and nickel. These metals have better conductivity than do those in the second group
* iron, tin, foil-coated wrappers and bottle tops
Pin Pointing the Target
When a signal is heard, and do not ignore the faint ones, immediately swing back over the area to pinpoint it. An accurately pinpointed target will save you hours of digging work.
MINELAB Metal Detector Technology
Continuous Sine Wave, this is the traditional type of technology used in most basic detectors. These detectors are also known as VLF (very low frequency) models. While signal processing has improved enormously, the basic way that the signal is sent out and received back hasn’t changed a lot. Continuous sine wave detectors create an electro-magnetic field, which is applied to the ground in a continuous wave.
Broad Band Spectrum (BBS) & FBS Comparison Chart Full Band Spectrum (FBS, this method transmits in multiple frequencies simultaneously instead of just one as with most VLF machines. BBS technology transmits in 17 frequencies (1.5 – 25kHz) simultaneously and FBS transmits in 28 frequencies from 1.5kHz to 100kHz.
This exclusive and patented technology by Minelab has the benefit of offering superior depth and accurate discrimination over a wide variety of targets. Multi-frequency detectors are recognised as the most versatile treasure hunting detectors available on the market today.
This uses state of the art digital and mixed signal components to enhance standard single frequency technology. The advantage of VFLEX technology is that it provides dependable performance and improved immunity to outside interference. VFLEX technology has the added advantage of changing the frequency of the detector by simply changing the coil being used.
VFLEX, Multi-Period Sensing (MPS) & Dual-Voltage Technology (DVT)
MPS is the exclusive and patented technology that Minelab first introduced in the SD series detectors. Minelab’s unique MPS technology transmits a stream of alternating short and long pulses of magnetic field into the ground, causing objects to produce a changed magnetic field of their own. This means that you can locate metal targets at far greater depth than conventional (VLF) detectors, while small targets can still be found in difficult grounds.
MPS technology also aids in the accuracy of ground balance, which limits the number of ‘ghost’ or false signals.
DVT is a further enhancement on MPS technology that has been incorporated into the GP series detectors including the top of the range GPX-4000. MPS with DVT provides excellent ground cancelling abilities, improved signal-to-noise ratio i.e. very smooth operation with sharp target signals, excellent sensitivity, and depth.
The Three Main Types Of Ground Balance Are:
Manual Ground Balance
Provides the operator with the ability to alter the ground balance to suit various and changing ground mineralisation being detected in.
Automatic Ground Tracking
Minelab first invented true automatic ground balance in 1987 and their world renowned ground tracking circuitry has been a staple technology in their range of detectors since then.
Automatic Ground Tracking refers to the ability of the detector to track changes in ground mineralisation and automatically adjust the ground balance to suit. This ensures perfect ground balance and full detection depth, eliminating the need for the operator to stop and manually adjust the detector as ground conditions change.
ACCU-Trak, Pre-Set Ground Balance
Preset to suit a particular soil type. This limits where the detector is able to be used, but will generally work well in less mineralised sites such as parks, playgrounds and dry beach sand.
What Difference Does Frequency Make?
Measured in kilohertz (kHz), frequency is the number of times a signal is transmitted into the ground and received back per second. The lower the frequency used by the detector, the deeper it can normally penetrate. At low frequencies however, sensitivity to small low conductive target is sometimes reduced. The higher the frequency, the higher the sensitivity to small targets, but it may not penetrate as deeply. In general, gold detectors operate at higher frequencies (to find small nuggets), while coin and treasure detectors work at lower frequencies for deeper penetration.
The exception to this is MPS type metal detectors that are sensitive and deep seeking simultaneously.
NOTE: Frequency is only one of the factors that will determine depth andsensitivity, therefore only use it as one of the indicators.
Types Of Discrimination
Discrimination is the ability of the detector to identify the type of metal object found and to eliminate the unwanted items and indicate only on the desirable ones.
This is the most basic of discrimination types. I t works like a demarcation line in the conductivity level. This level can be set by the operator and all metals with a conductivity lower than where the level is set are eliminated & all metals with a higher conductivity are accepted.
Notch Filter DiscriminationNotch Discrimination
If all metals were arrayed in order of their conductivity, from least conductive to most conductive, Notch Filter discrimination segments that array into “Notches” and each notch or segment can then be accepted or deleted. Depending on the number and width of the notches offered on the model of detector, will determine to some degree how selective the detector can be at eliminating junk from good targets.
2-D Discrimination Or ‘SmartFind TM’Smartfind
Unlike all other detectors on the market, the Minelab Explorer has the ability to test a metal target for two characteristics, its conductivity as well as its ferrous properties.
By testing targets for 2 characteristics, the Explorer is able to see differences in metals that have the same conductivity and eliminate the unwanted trash.
Some detectors will indicate the possible ID (identity) of a target, by changing the tone of the target signal. Generally low conductive metals will give a lower tone while highly conductive metals will give a higher pitched tone.
Most coin & treasure detectors today, offer a meter or LCD screen, which will identify the target using either graphic display or numeric numbers.
Note: The accuracy of discrimination is dependant on the repeatability of an object’s conductivity rating. Man made objects will normally be consistent in their conductivity, however naturally occurring gold nuggets will often have variations in their purity and therefore their conductivity. For this reason, most gold prospecting detectors tend to have more basic discrimination, often only identifying ferrous from non-ferrous objects.
What Are The Differences Between Coils?
The size of a coil can influence the depth or sensitivity of a detector. The larger the coil, the deeper it tends to detect but it has less sensitivity to tiny targets. The smaller the diameter, the more sensitive it becomes but with less depth.
Smaller coils will also be lighter in weight, easier to control and may be chosen for their ability to negotiate difficult terrain or undergrowth. They are also an advantage in areas of high trash.
The most common shapes of coils are the conventional solid Round coils, the Elliptical shaped coils and the Open-web coils. The main reason for the change in shape is to conform to a physical requirement, i.e. the elliptical coil can be pushed around bushes or between stony country easier than round coils. Open-web coils help cut through water when detecting in water and are lighter for their size. Conventional round coils are often a more stable and high performing coil and are particularly popular when gold prospecting.
The three most common types of coil windings are Concentric, Double-D, and Monoloop. The difference between these coil types is the pattern the wire is wounded within the coil.
A Concentric coil has an inner circle and an outer circle wire winding. Its search pattern is cone shaped and can be useful for accurately pinpointing the target. Concentric coils tend to be noisier in highly mineralised ground and require more over lap of sweep for thorough ground coverage.
Double-D wound coils are the preferred coils for most detecting. They give a blade or chisel shaped signal that covers the ground more uniformly and once an operator becomes accustomed to the signal, pinpointing can be very accurate. Double-D coils are also preferred for their superior ground balancing ability.
Monoloop coils are a special style of coil for MPS technology detectors (SD & GP Series). These coils have one winding of wire around the circumference of the coil and this winding is used to both transmit and receive.
The signal pattern of the Monoloop coil is cone shaped, requiring more over lapping. In extremely heavily mineralised grounds they can be more difficult to ground balance, however they tend to provide slightly better depth than the Double -D coils. Experienced detector operators have always favoured
Monoloop coils. Since the release of the GPX-4000, the features on offer allow the use of Monoloop coils on a wider range of soils.
A. DIFFERENT WAYS OF DOING GOLD CONCENTRATION
B. GOLD PLANT PROCESS FLOW SHEET
Gold Technology and Gold Production Plant
The gold mining process begins with geologists discovering a deposit.
After finding indications of gold, drill rigs are used to obtain samples from below the surface. These samples are analyzed for their gold content. If there is enough gold in the deposit to be produced economically, a mine is permitted and developed.
Open Pit Mining
The ore is mined in four steps: drilling, blasting, loading and hauling.
In the case of a surface mine, a pattern of holes is drilled in the pit and filled with explosives.
The explosives are detonated in order to break up the ground
so it can be loaded by large shovels or front-end loaders into haul trucks.
Some orebodies are more economically mined using underground methods. In this case, a tunnel called an adit or a shaft, is dug into the earth. Sort tunnels leading from the adit or shaft, called stopes, are dug to access the ore. The surface containing the ore, called a face, is drilled and loaded with explosives. Following blasting, the broken ore is loaded into trucks and taken to the surface. Once mining is completed in a particular stope, it is backfilled with a cement compound.
Ore and Waste Haulage
The haul trucks transport the ore to various areas for processing. The grade and type of ore determine the processing method used. Higher-grade ores are taken to a mill. Lower grade ores are taken to leach pads. Some ores may be stockpiled for later processing.
Ore Processing – Heap leaching
The ore is crushed or placed directly on lined leach pads where a weak cyanide solution is applied to the surface of the heap. The solution percolates down through the ore, where it leaches the gold and flows to a central collection location. All of the solution is recovered in this closed system, preventing any infiltration into the ground below.
The ore is fed into a series of grinding mills where steel balls grind the ore to a fine slurry or powder.
Some types of ore require further processing before gold is recovered. In this case, the slurry is pressure-oxidized in an autoclave (shown on right) before going to the leaching tanks or a dry powder is fed through a roaster in which it is oxidized using heat before being sent to the leaching tanks as a slurry.
The slurry is thickened and run through a series of leaching tanks. The gold in the slurry adheres to carbon in the tanks.
The carbon is then moved into a stripping vessel where the gold is removed from the carbon by pumping a hot caustic solution through the carbon. The carbon is later recycled.
The gold-bearing solution is pumped through electro-winning cells or through a zinc precipitation circuit where the gold is recovered from the solution.
The gold is then melted in a furnace at about 2,100°F and poured into molds, creating doré bars.
Doré bars are unrefined gold bullion bars containing anywhere from 60% to 95% gold.
The bars are sent to a refinery for further processing into pure gold.
To restore the landscape for future uses such as ranching, recreation or wildlife habitat protection, reclamation, including revegetation, is implemented concurrently during mining.
Flow Sheet Production
Bahan mentah seperti batu, tanah, ore, slurry harus melalui mesin mesin Wash Plant, Recovery System dan Clean Up System, hal ini sering sekali diabaikan oleh penambang PETI dan atau penambang kecil dan menengah yang memiliki IPR sekalipun, penambang besar tidak masuk bahasan di blog ini, karena mereka pasti melewati flow sheet production tsb secara sistematis untuk memperoleh hasil yang efektif dan maksimal.
Mesin mesin tsb memiliki harga yang sangat bervariasi, mulai dari Rp 38 jt s/d puluhan milyar per paket/unitnya, jadi bila di lahan anda memiliki kandungan emas yang bernilai ekonomis tinggi bila di exploitasi (tentunya setelah melalui serangkaian Test Lab Sample dari beberapa puluh titik di lahan emas anda), jangan tanggung untuk menginvestasikan uang anda untuk membeli mesin mesin yang tepat, tepat tidak harus mahal, tapi sesuai dengan kebutuhan anda dan jenis bahan mentah di lahan anda serta kapasitas yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan, karena kapasitas mesin mesin berpengaruh di harga, semakin besar kapasitas feed size-input-output semakin mahal juga harga mesin mesin tsb! Investasi mesin mesin dengan tepat sama artinya dengan Pay Back Periodh atau BEP yang cepat, seperti Gold Plant Company besar dunia, dengan memakai mesin mesin yang tepat, tingkat recovery emas sampai 99%, maka BEP sangat cepat, tidak mustahil bisa tercapai dalam hitungan bulan saja!!!
Gold Prospector atau small gold digger seperti kami di Indonesia paling familiar memakai peralatan Gold pan-mendulang-nggembang-wajan, Air raksa-Hg-Mercury-Amalgamasi-Gelondongan-Tromel, Tabung Leaching Sianida-Karbon aktif rekayasa anak bangsa, adapun mesin mesin ramah lingkungan yang relatif dikenal luas adalah mesin Dongfeng (sejatinya adalah sebuah merek mesin Diesel buatan China) yang bahasa International nya adalah Slurry Pump, Karpet, yang aslinya bernama Sluice Box, bahkan mesin mesin sejenis meja Gravitasi basah, meja Gravitasi Separator, meja Jig Konsentrator, masih menjadi barang yang sangat asing bagi sebagian besar PETI dan penambang IPR kelas kecil dan menengah, apalagi mesin mesin bernama Leaching Reaktor, Kiln Karbon, Ore Roaster, Sentrifugal konsentrator, Reaktor Akasia dll masih jadi barang asing dan langka bagi mereka, padahal mesin mesin tsb sangat efektif dan maksimal.
Mesin mesin Wash Plant, Recovery & Clean Up System emas, metal dan mineral kami datangkan dalam negeri dan dari luar negeri, kami siap untuk anda yang membutuhkannya, termasuk mesin kelas industri Gold Plant Company besar, kami siap mendatangkannya ke Indonesia untuk anda, asalkan dana anda siap.
MAGNETIC SEPARATORS, ELECTRO MAGNETIC MINERALS SEPARATORS, MINING EQUIPMENT SEPARATORS
High intensity Magnetic Separators are the most common and widely used type of magnetic separator in the world. The (DISC TYPE) high intensity magnetic separator is a highly selective machine especially designed for the continuous separation of various minerals with intermediate susceptibilities.
- Concentrating of dry, granular minerals such as ilmenite, garnet, monazite, walframite, columbite, tantalite, etc.
- Separation and removal of minerals of low magnetic susceptibility from cassiterite, zircon, shellite, rutile, etc.
- Efficient and clean separation of cassiterite (Tin) from mixture of other minerals (i.e., Ilmenite), where the specific gravity differences are not sufficiently large for effective gravitational wet process to be effective.
- Separation of Garnet and Monazite from Zircon.
- The removal of feebly magnetic particles from swart.
- Purification of abrasives.
- Purification of quartz for the glass making industry.
- Extraction of iron oxides from chemicals and various food products.
Stone crushers are widely used in mining, metallurgical, construction, chemistry, petrochemicals, transportation, energy, building materials industry, suitable for crushing high hard, mid hard and soft rocks and ores such as iron ore, limestone, slag, marble, quartz, granite, cement, clinker and so on. Stone crushers feature large crushing rate, high yield, equal product size, simple structure, reliable operation and easy maintenance, economic operating costs etc. Our Stone crusher contain mobile crusher, jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, hammer crusher, VSI crusher etc.
Yth Pemilik Lahan
Bila di sekitar anda terdapat lahan tandus, kering, gersang dan bebatuan cadas, siapa tahu di area tersebut batuannya mengandung emas, metal dan mineral berharga, baik di pulau Jawa dan seluruh Indonesia.
Daerah di Jawa seperti Banyuwangi, Pacitan, Ponorogo, Tulung Agung, Malang, Padang-Sumatera, Kalimantan, Lombok, Sulawesi, Papua dll sangat kaya bahan tambang, mineral dan metal berharga. Bila anda penasaran dan ingin mengetahui kandungan logam di area dan lahan milik anda, jangan segan segera hubungi kami.
Bila anda berminat serius menjadi penambang emas, dibawah ini adalah tips untuk anda yaitu :
1. Contoh batu dan atau tanah diambil di satu area lahan yang terdiri dari beberapa titik atau poin, masing masing titik diambil sampel batu dan atau tanah sekitar 1-2 kg, mulai dari a. permukaan-surface-top soil, b. kedalaman 5-10 meter dan c. kedalaman 20-50 meter.
Batu dan atau tanah bisa di siapkan dengan diameter maksimal sekitar 1-3 mm sekitar 1-2 kg, kalau bisa di giling lembut dengan ukuran mess 200-400 lebih baik!
Sampel tanah dan atau batuan harus di proses lebih lanjut, silahkan di tes Laboratorium, misal di TUV, Bueraue Veritas, SGS, Sucofindo, Carsurin, Geoservice dan Lab Universitas ternama misalnya Unair/Ubaya/ITS/ITB/UI dll. Tes Lab untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kandungan emas, perak, tembaga, timah, PGM dll, langkah tersebut harus diambil supaya anda lebih yakin dengan dukungan data akurat dan ilmiah sebelum “mengexploitasi” lokasi lahan milik anda dan menginvestasikan sejumlah besar uang ke bisnis ini.
2. Setelah mendapatkan hasil uji Lab tentang kandungan Au-emas dll di lahan anda, dan seandainya hasilnya sangat bagus serta layak secara ekonomis untuk di exploitasi, silahkan menghubungi kami untuk mempersiapkan mesin pertambangan emas yang tepat, tepat tidak harus mahal tetapi sesuai dengan skala pertambangan anda, kebutuhan, jenis ore-tanah-bahan mentah dan budget anda. Harga mesin mulai Rp 38 jt s/d puluhan bahkan ratusan milyar Rupiah per unit atau per paket mesin, kami siap memasok untuk anda, dan yang paling penting, kami mampu memberikan saran terbaik untuk anda, dengan prinsip “membeli mesin mesin yang tepat sesuai kebutuhan anda, tepat tidak harus mahal”.
Mesin mesin pertambangan emas mulai dari wash plant, recovery system dan clean up system yang tepat akan memberikan efek yang sangat efektif, positif dan maksimal untuk “Pay Back Periodh” modal anda dengan cepat, bahkan dalam hitungan bulan!
Contoh mesin perhiasan dan mesin pertambangan yang sanggup kami bikin dan sediakan yaitu al :
1. Rolling Mills Rp 10 juta
2. Tube Making Machines (profile machines)
3. Diamond Cutting Machines
4. Turning Machines
5. Hand and Hydroulic Prosses
7. Mesin kalung milano hand made to order Rp 150 juta
8. Mesin Las Plasma hand made to order Rp 125 juta
9. Matras Rp 55 ribu
10. Mesin Seleb Kalung
11. Mesin Rol Gelang Bangkok Rp 21.9 juta, Rol Gelang Holo Rp 35.9 juta termasuk 3 matras
12. Roll Plate/Kawat Rp 1,5 juta
13. Draw Plate Rp 1,1 juta
14. Soldering Unit (klempus)/set Rp 150 ribu
15. Gergaji Tangan 40 – 160 cm Rp 32 ribu an
15. Paron/Horn Anvil Rp 47 ribu
16. Ring Size Rp 37 ribu
17. Ring Size stick/Mandrel Rp 47 – 135 ribu an
18. Gunting lokal ada 6 macam @Rp 17 ribu an
19. Tang lokal ada 6 macam @ Rp 22 ribu an
20. Kikir per set kwalitas biasa Rp 37 ribu , kwalitas bagus Rp 360 ribu
21. Jangka Rp 62 ribu
22. Sikat Rp 62 ribu
23. Kaca Pembesar Rp 67 ribu
24. Pinset Jupiter/set Rp 32 ribu
25. Rotary Tumbler A. Magnet Import Rp 7,5 juta B. Sistem Getar (gotri) lokal Rp 17,5 juta
26. Mesin Cukit Gelang Rp 21 juta
27. Meja tarik & Pisau potong plat untuk Rol Gelang
28. Mesin Plating Rp 3 juta
29. Mesin Flexible Shaft (bor/gravir) Rp 1,75 juta
30. Sikat Cincin Dalam Rp 18 ribu
31. Sikat Cincin Luar Rp 65 ribu
32. Sengki Kerok Rp 12 ribu
33. Udul per set Rp 85 ribu
34. Mesin Punch/Plong Lubang Tanjek Rp 1,3 juta
35. Palu Plastik Rp 100 ribu
36. Mesin Poles Rp 9,5 juta
37. Soldering Clamp Rp 220 ribu
38. Mesin Pertambangan Rakyat untuk proses Emas
39. Air Raksa per tabung 34.5 kg Rp 22.5jt, ex USA, Spanyol & German, eceran minimal 5 kg, harga Rp 950rb/kg
40. Sedia peralatan mengikat emas dengan bermacam metode ramah lingkungan, ex import, seperti Leaching Reaktor, Elektro Platting, Spiral, Wet-Dry Trommel, Wave Table, Gold Pan, Meja Konsentrator, High Bankers, Sluices Box, Meja Vibrator, Gold Metal Detector, Bucket River Dredged, Ground Penetrating Radar/Software dll
41. Sedia paket 4 bh Tromel/Drum/Molen plus rangka, puli, fan belt, laker pillow, siap pakai-komplet, (dengan Diesel/Motor Listrik) harga Rp. 35 juta, diluar biaya kirim, contoh biaya kirim kontainer 20 feet Surabaya-Kendari sekitar Rp. 8 juta, waktu 3-4 hari, belum termasuk biaya tidak resmi di pelabuhan
Diameter glondongan 30 cm x panjang 50-60 cm, kapasitas 40-50kg/glondongan, paket termasuk training pengoperasian dan trik and tips rahasia amalgamasi
43. Mesin Lebur Emas, memakai elemen listrik Rp. 35 -55 juta, kap 1 kg
44. Tungku peleburan import/Furnace, kap 30kg AU$ 28.000
45. Jaw Crusher kap 12 ton/8 jam + power 16pk electro motor 10pk + screen 3 susun & 1 deck, dengan sistem mobile bisa di towing/digandeng dengan mobil, buatan Surabaya, harga Rp 95 juta. Pemesanan DP 50%, sisa dibayarkan saat barang jadi, lama pembuatan 3 minggu
46. Hammer Mill, Ball Mill, Trommels, Grinding, Grizlly, Feeder, Conveyor belt, Vibrating Screen dll buatan lokal Surabaya dengan kwalitas export, anda bisa pilih mesin buatan kami dengan kwalitas KW 1, KW2 atau KW3 untuk customer dengan bugdet terbatas, kami siap melayani anda
47. Ore Roaster, mesin pembakar tanah yang mengandung minyak
48. Retrot untuk membersihkan Hg di mix metal dalam proses Amalgam
49. Dll sesuai pesanan
Harga bulan April 2009, harga bisa berubah sewaktu waktu.
Dan masih banyak jenis mesin tambang dan perhiasan yang lain sesuai pesanan pelanggan yang sanggup kami supply dan kerjakan!
Keuntungan memakai jasa kami adalah, biaya lebih murah, kwalitas terjamin, garansi 1 tahun, perawatan mesin, melayani custom made atau mengerjakan sesuai pesanan pelanggan, baik mesin perhiasan sederhana atau manual dan mesin canggih import sanggup kami kerjakan! Segera hubungi kami, demi kelancaran dan efisiensi bisnis kerajinan emas dan perhiasan anda!
BALL MILL, GRINDING MILL
We supplies a complete range of crushing and grinding equipment for your turn key rock reduction and material comminution requirement. Supplies over 22 models of grinding mills. The ball mills are manufactured with highest quality material and workmanship.
Ball mill is an efficient tool for grinding many materials into fine powder. The Ball Mill is used to grind many kinds of mine and other materials, or to select the mine. It is widely used in building material, chemical industry, etc. There are two ways of grinding: the dry process and the wet process. It can be divided into tabular type and flowing type according to different forms of discharging material.
The ball mill is a key equipment for regrinding. It is widely used for the cement, the silicate product, new type building material, fire-proof material, chemical fertilizer, black and non-ferrous metal, glass, ceramics and etc. Our ball mill can grind ore or other materials that can be grinded either by wet process or by dry process.
Ball Mill Operating principle :
This ball mill is horizontal type and tubular running device, has two warehouses. This machine is grid type and its outside runs along gear. The material enters spirally and evenly the first warehouse of the milling machine along the input material hollow axis by input material device. In this warehouse , there is a ladder scaleboard or ripple scaleboard, and different specification steel balls are installed on the scaleboard, when the barrel body rotates and then produces centrifugal force ,at this time , the steel ball is carried tosome height and falls to make the material grinding and striking. After grinded coarsely in the first warehouse, the material then enters into the second warehousefor regrinding with the steel ball and scaleboard. In the end, the powder is discharged by output material board andthe end products are completed.
EXPLORER, WASH PLANTS, GRAVITY SEPARATION PLANTS, PORTABLE PLANTS
EXPLORER Portable wash plants are easy to install and operate and do not require an operator or fresh water.
EXPLORER gravity separation plants, wash plants are designed for 100% recovery of Diamonds, Gold and other minerals, over the selected sieve size, with no loss.
EXPLORER Minerals Processing Plants, wash plants are economically configured with highest quality material and workmanship,designed for rapid Exploration, or as Pilot Plant for Small To Medium Scale Mining Operation.
EXPLORER™wash plants or processing plants are exclusively designed, patented and are fabricated with unique features & Price Tag, which is unmatched in the industry.
CONCENTRATING TABLES, SHAKING TABLES, GRAVITY CONCENTRATING TABLES
Concentrating tables, shaking tables are designed for high Capacity, Efficient, and Continuous separation of two or more material of different specific gravities, forming a mechanical mixture, capable of liquid suspension, within their feed size range.
Concentrating tables, shaking tables Economically and Efficiently effect separation between free minerals of different specific gravities, whether the feed materials are ores, minerals, crushed slags or other mixtures of light and heavy materials.
Concentrating tables, shaking tables are designed for final separation & recovery of Gold, Silver, Tin, Columbium, Tantalum, Titanium, Barium, Tungsten, Iron, Chrome, Manganese, Zircon, Lead, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Aluminum, Clay, Cleaning Glass Sand, Recovery of Mica, Concentration of Potash Ores, Recovery of Phosphate Rock and Metallic from Slag, Vermiculite, etc.
SUPERB PROPERTIES, AT LOWER COST:
* Higher Recoveries & Concentrate Yield
* Greater Feed Capacity, More Tonnage/Day
* 4-Models to choose from, both Diagonal deck and Rectangular deck design
* Deck Construction with Highest Quality of Water proof Teak Marine Wood
* Continuous and un-interrupted Feed Cycle, (Utilizing Automatic Feed Mechanism AFM™) resulting in higher Recovery, time saving and costs
* Automatic Dry & Wet Feed Mechanism AFM™
* Highest Quality Antifriction Head Motion
* Modern and efficient Anti-Friction Head Motion mechanism, self-oiling and splash-proof
* Highest Quality Material Fabrication
* Lowest ownership cost
* Standard One-Year Warrantee
“MARI BELAJAR TENTANG WASH PLANT, RECOVERY & CLEAN UP SYSTEM EMAS, PERAK, PGM DLL DENGAN LEACH PROCESS NaCN+ACTIVE CARBON ALA PABRIKAN BESAR”
I. Processing Plant
At the Processing Plant, gold and silver are extracted from the ore.
Ore processing consists of the following stages :
- crushing and grinding of the ore
- addition of process water (generally decanted from the tailings pond) to form a slurry
- addition of lime to the ore, and cyanide solution to the slurry, to leach the gold and silver into solution
- addition of carbon to adsorb dissolved metals and remove them from the slurry
- stripping the metals from the carbon by acid washing and circulation of a caustic cyanide solution
- precipitation of the gold and silver by electro-winning
- smelting of metal products into bars of doré bullion
- pumping of the barren slurry (tailings) to the tailings storage facility.
These stages can be described under three main headings:
- grinding and size classification to reduce the ore down to a fine particle size
- leaching and adsorption to extract the precious metals from the rock
- recovery of the precious metals to produce doré bullion bars.
II. Grinding and Sizing
Ore processing is a 24 hour operation. Ore is stockpiled at the Processing Plant, and the process begins by feeding the ore into a hopper with a loader. The ore is conveyed, and lime is added to raise the pH of the ore. Following crushing through a jaw crusher, the ore is fed into the Semi Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill along with water and steel balls.The grinding process reduces the rock to a slurry.
The SAG mill is a large revolving cylinder. Rock is ground by the turning action of the mill, and impact from the hardened steel balls and the rock itself. In order to ensure that the rock is ground finely enough the SAG mill has a trommel screen, which acts like a large sieve. The oversize rock (SCATS) is caught by the trommel, along with the worn hardened steel balls. This material is fed past a magnet to separate out the steel balls. The oversize rock passes through the SCATS cone crusher, prior to passing once again into the SAG mill for further grinding.
The slurry that is fine enough passes through the trommel to a sump and then to a primary hydrocyclone. This hydrocyclone classifies the ground rock particles according to size – using centrifugal and gravitational forces to split the fine particles from the coarse particles. The fine particles are pumped via a sump to a secondary hydrocyclone, and the larger particles return to the SAG mill for further grinding.
The secondary hydrocyclone further classifies the slurry, with the coarse particles being directed to the ball mill and fine particles reporting to the trash screen. The ball mill is very similar to the SAG mill, except it has a larger proportion of steel balls to assist in the grinding process.
Following grinding in the ball mill, the material is returned via the sump to the secondary hydrocyclone for resizing. The trash screen removes wood from the old workings that may have found its way into the processing circuit. The slurry that remains after this process has a very fine particle size. Typically, 80% of the ore particles are less than 70 microns in size (about the same consistency as fine beach sand). Such a fine particle size is required for gold liberation – the size required for the cyanide to be able to ‘see’ the gold in the leaching process.
The remaining slurry passes through a pre-leach thickener, to remove some of the water. The recovered water is reused in the grinding circuit while the thickened slurry moves into the leaching circuit.
III. Leaching and Adsorption
The slurry of ground ore and lime moves into a series of six leach tanks where a sodium cyanide solution is added. The tanks provide sufficient retention time to allow the gold and silver to be dissolved by the cyanide solution. Oxygen is added to assist in this process.
The slurry then moves through a series of carbon adsorption tanks. While the leaching process continues in these tanks, the primary objective is to remove the gold and silver from the solution. To achieve this, carbon is fed through the tanks and the gold and silver adsorbs (attaches) to the carbon granules. Carbon is heated to 600 degrees C and fed into the circuit in the opposite direction to the slurry flow, moving from the last adsorption tank to the first. This is because the gold and silver move towards the carbon via a diffusive process. It is necessary to have ‘fresh’ carbon at the end of the chain, to scalp the gold and silver that has not been removed in the previous tanks.
By the time the slurry reaches the final adsorption tank, most of the precious metals have been removed. The barren slurry, now known as tailings, is pumped to the tailings storage facility. In contrast, by the time the carbon reaches the first adsorption tank it has recovered most of the gold and silver from solution. This ‘loaded’ carbon is then pumped to the elution circuit where the gold and silver is washed off with superheated water. The washed solution, called pregnant eluate, is passed to the electrowinning circuit. The remaining barren carbon is reactivated by acid washing and kilning and returned to the adsorption tanks.
IV. Precious Metals Recovery
The pregnant eluate is passed through a series of electrowinning cells. containing cathodes in the form of stainless steel plates. The gold and silver migrates and attaches itself to the stainless steel cathodes. The cathodes are then rinsed, yielding a muddy sludge, and the cathodes are reused.The muddy sludge is dried, and the powder that remains is mixed with fluxes and put into the furnace. The furnace attains a temperature of 1200 degrees C and after several hours the molten material is poured into a cascade of moulds to produce doré bullion bars. The fluxes form a slag of impurities which is removed, leaving a bar which is a 99% pure melt of gold and silver. Each bar of doré bullion contains around 75% – 90% silver and 10% -25% gold, and weighs approximately 20 kg.
Atas perhatian dan kerjasamanya kami ucapkan banyak terima kasih.
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* SHARE KNOWLEDGE A TO Z ABOUT GOLD*
Gold Prospecting – Mining – Panning – Metallurgy
We are going to show you the basic theory and methodology you need to find where gold is present, how to identify it and what alternatives there are for the extraction of gold via panning or other. In short, this site will show you everything you need to know about gold prospecting. Although we’ll explain to great extend the “how to” of searching for mineral deposits
within ore veins, this guide considers free gold ( Gold Placers of various types ) as the main source of this precious metal. Also learn how to invest in gold via our other detailed guide.
Mining extraction and metallurgy of gold has been pursued with great interesteconomic metal. since it developed intrinsic value as a result of its economic and physical properties, its decorative appeal and its scarcity. During much time gold has been the most attractive metal on the world, and still to this day is one the ones most fever and many developments and new ideas have appeared as a consequence of its huge value as an gold panning
The gold-mining industry has grown considerably, and it appeared to the writer that the present would be a propitious time to bring out some guides in order to understand gold prospecting and gold mining. What has been goal of the site is to make “Prospecting for Gold” a compendium, in especially concrete form, of useful information respecting the processes of winning from the soil and the after- treatment of gold and gold ores, including some original suggestions. Practical information, original and selected, mining jobs are given to mining company directors, mine managers, mill operators, and prospectors. In each part, will be found a large number of useful hints on subjects directly and indirectly connected with the gold mining.
All the information should be very useful and surely is original, and each reader will be able to understand the difficult task of processing gold ores found in the veins that bear it. You’ll learn the art of extracting valuable metals from gravel placers.
Here, you can learn about metal detecting as well as gold panning. You get to learn why gold placers will form where they form. You’ll learn how to look and how to find gold placers (that’s prospecting!) and analyze it.
Those unfamiliar with prospecting and mining will find a great Glossary of the Mining Trade’s Terms. The characteristics of an ore deposit and its minerals assemblages (mineralization) determine mining methods, extraction process (recovery methods & equipment needed), and the performance of all chemical processes involved in gold extraction. Thus, a good knowledge of an ore is required to develop a gold extraction and the efficiency of the process.
The gold mineralogy can offer the following variations:
* Gold occurrence, showings.
* Gold particle size and distribution.
* Type of gangue.
* Mineralogical association.
* Changes in mineral.
* Changes during the time.
Classifications of Gold-Bearing Materials
According to their mineralogical and historical characteristics the gold- bearing material can be classified as:
* Free milling ores.
* Oxidized ores.
* Silver-rich ores.
* Iron sulphides.
* Arsenic sulphides.
* Copper sulphides.
* Antimony sulphides.
Each of these classes of gold bearing materials has especial mineralogical characteristics which affect their processing and are considered in the next sections.
Methods of Gold Explorations & Gold Prospection
The majority of large placer deposits are in South America, Africa or Asia. When one operates in a foreign, remote area, it is essential to use reliable methods, local labor, and tested equipment. Photogeology, at the initial stage, offers a 2D (surface) definition of the area and its geology. Seismic adds a 3rd dimension to lead the sampling program. It provides cross-sections of alluvial terraces with little error. The sampling in strategically selected areas gives tests on economic reliability of the deposit.
Things like Photogeology, Seismic surveys, Sampling are evaluated here.
Panning for Gold
In the last decade auriferous activity has gone through substantial changes all over the world due to global warming, having taken effect in the countries with big gold investment programs, elevating in this way production substantially. This also brought about as a consequence a way to research and investigation of modern and appropriate technologies, tendencies for cost reduction, achieve high productivity and increase production.
A great part of this scientific technological experience all around the world is seen in this site. In the last years different countries have been able to take on modern techniques as far as the different stages of procedure of production and industrialization of the yellow metal. Some of the different technological innovations that have take place are:
The procedure of activated carbon in pulp, that brings about the recovery of gold through precipitation with zinc and electro deposition.
Cyanidation is a simple and economic procedure that allows the opening of deposits with contents or the continuance of old renovations; besides these renovations, these days we are highlighting more and more over the usage of the oldest technique that is known of: gravimetry. All this has to do with is placement of gravimetric tools that allow high recovery of gold.
The particularity of the processing of gold minerals does not reside in the usage of certain specific techniques, but in the combination of technologies based on an exhaustive mineral study, following along with the old belief that there are not two mines that are the same, therefore, one specific technology is not applicable to two mines.
The idea is to put in the hands of those that are interested and immersed in the auriferous activity, some information of council that will support your work with the idea of obtaining an optimal and productive operation.
The following has been separated into parts in order to give you an integral vision of this activity. From the aspects remember to keep in mind that in order to take on an auriferous mining project the first part takes on aspects that need to be taken account of to understand and carry out exploration work, in the second part we focus on different types of deposits and besides this we also focus also on a combination of processing techniques of the minerals in an appropriate way, like the application of the extraction technology, concentration and recovery of gold, according to the type of deposit and its mineralogical association in order to obtain good results.
Without a doubt the idea of this article is to provide the best and most information about this important theme. The idea is to cover a good number of aspects, however, in general we hope that it is useful.
Gold Extraction Methods
Process selection: Process selection is the systematic development of the optimum metal extraction route for a particular ore using the most appropriate technology. For gold the procedure has two goals:
* Optimize project economics, principally a function of gold recovery throughput rate and processing cost.
* Develop a process that satisfies all of the project requirements, including environmental considerations.
Process selection is an iterative procedure which usually starts as soon as exploration has established the presence of gold mineralization in sufficient grade and tonnage for the orebody to be considered a potentially economic reserve. The effort devoted to process selection is related to the degree of certainly of the grade and reserve estimations and their absolute values, such as attractiveness of the deposit.
The risk associated with the development of gold projects can be minimized planning a good work metallurgical program, and considering aspects that have been considered in the project: capital, profitability, risk and environmental factors
Factors in a process selection: The factors affecting process selection can be grouped into six areas.
Economic and Political
Gold does not react at ambient temperature and pressures and consequently there are very few naturally occurring compounds of the metal. The average concentration of gold in the world is about 0.005 g/t, that is lower than other metals. The low concentration of gold in primary rocks means that upgrading by a factor of 3000-4000 is usually required during ore formation processes to achieve commercial concentrations. This may be possible natural gravity concentration processes or leaching gold with natural fluids from the host rock. Thus, by highly oxidizing, acidic and complexing (chloride) solutions, followed by redeposition in a more concentrate form. Owing to its siderophile properties (weak affinity for oxygen and sulfur, high affinity for metals) gold tends to concentrate in residual hydrothermal fluids and subsequent metallic or sulphidic phases, rather than silicates, which form at an early stage of magma cooling. Rocks that are high in clays and
low in carbonates are the best sources of gold, and reprecipitation occurs when the hydrothermal solutions encounter a reducing environment, such as a region of high carbonate, carbon or reducing sulphide contain.
The predominant occurrence of gold is as native metal, often alloyed with up to 15 % silver. Other gold minerals include alloys with tellurium, selenium bismuth, mercury, copper, iron, rhodium and platinum. Therefore gold occurs in a mineral form different to most other elements.
The equipment used in mining has come a long way since miners had to extract minerals with hand held tools often under very dangerous conditions. Now a full range of specialized products are available across the whole spectrum of mining requirements.
The equipment to be invested in depends on the kind of mining being undertaken. Mining can be broadly categorised into three types: surface mining, sub-surface mining and underground mining. All of them have their own specific equipment needs.
Surface mining which includes strip mining, dredging, mountaintop removal, highwall mining and open pit mining is a method used to extract minerals or ores found near the surface of the earth. Earthmovers, bulldozers, wheel loader, dump trucks, cranes and other heavy machinery are used to prepare the area or dig the pits. To prevent the quarry walls from collapsing, shotcrete, rock bolts and other bolts are used to build support structures. Drills, cutting machines, and explosives may also be used to reach the ores. Metal detectors and dredges are some other products used to extract ores. Equipment like dragline excavators and bucket wheel excavators are used to remove materials. They can be transferred onto conveyer belt systems and taken to processing plants where machines like crushers, reactors, roasters magnetic separators etc will be used to process the ore and minerals. Trucks, loaders and other vehicles are also required to move both miners and materials around the site.
Once the mining is completed, the area is often covered with the help of machinery with a layer of soil or clay. A drainage system has to be put in place to prevent the area becoming a lake. Sub-surface mining would require the use of drills and digging machines to construct small tunnels and shafts beneath the earth surface. Bore wells need to be put in place to remove excessive water from t he site.
For underground mining specialized equipment is needed to drill the very deep shafts and tunnels to reach the ores. Sometimes machines like a continuous miner are used to excavate the rock surface avoiding the need to use explosives, blasters or drills. Longwall mining machines are also used in excavation underground since a part of this machine will hold up the roof while excavating. Special vehicles like articulated trucks and shuttle cars are more efficient when transporting men and materials between the various chambers underground. Lifts are used both to remove the excavated ores and minerals as well as to carry miners down the shafts to the mining area. A good lighting system must be provided underground as this increases the speed and efficiency of the process. Different choices of mine lighting include LEDs, heat sinks, laser lighting etc.
In all kinds of mining, safety precautions are paramount due to the risky nature of the work. Miners must be provided with hard hats are protective clothing. In underground mining, adequate ventilation using exhaust fans and blowers must be provided to remove the toxic fumes and circulate fresh air. Gas monitors are used to check for hazardous gases.
Gold Mining Exploration
Geologists who focus in gold mining exploration of natural resources often times require traveling a great deal to isolated areas in all kinds of climates, so as to find mineral or coal deposits. The work conditions in mines and pits can be out of the ordinary and in some circumstances very unsafe and dangerous. Underground mines are humid and dark, and others can be very hot as well as loud. Ever so often, a number of inches of water may possibly cover tunnel floors. Even though the underground mines have access to electric lights, there are certain areas in which only the miner’s caps lights illuminate certain deep and hidden areas. The roofs inside of the underground mines are in addition very low and often times the miners are required to work on their hands and knees, backs, or stomachs, in extremely cramped areas. There are many dangers in underground mining operations such as the possibility of an explosion or a cave in, electric shock, or contact with harmful gases.
Workers in surface mines and mine pits also have to deal with all types of extreme outdoor work in all kinds of weather conditions. There are also cases in which some mines close down when the weather is too extreme such as when there is snow and ice since it makes it difficult to work. The men working in mines are also required to have a lot of physical strength and stamina given that their work
directly involves lifting, stooping, and climbing. Surface mining, on the other hand, more often than not is not as dangerous and does not have all the same dangers as underground mining. Illnesses and injuries in gold mining exploration have progressively reduced over the years given the fact that there are now a lot of stricter safety laws and improvements in mining machinery and practices. Even though mine health and safety conditions are a lot better now and have dramatically improved, the dust that is caused due to drilling in mines still puts miners at risk of catching severe lung diseases. The first priority and concern of all in gold mining explorations must be the health and safety of the miners.
Gold Smelting and Refining
Gold concentrates: The options for treating gold concentrates are in direct relation with its gold contain, thus gravimetric concentrates have been treated by amalgamation following by retorting of the amalgam and smelting of the product. This is usually still the most efficient option, but considering the health hazard of mercury, several alternatives must be considered.
High grade concentrates, typically more than 300-500 g/t can be directly smelted, provided that the material does no contain minerals that could adversely affect smelting, e.g. sulphides.
Sometimes flotation can be used to up grade concentrates for direct smelting, but this is rarely applied. The effectiveness of the process depends on the nature of the material and the degree of gold liberation.
Smelting is an option for treating gold flotation concentrates, however the lowest grade that can be considered for smelting is more than 300 g/t, depending on the content of other metal values (copper, silver, platinum group metals), the concentrations of penalty elements and shipping distance
Parts Per Million (PPM): A unit of concentration often used when measuring levels of pollutants in air, water, body fluids, etc. One ppm is 1 part in 1,000,000. The common unit mg/liter is equal to ppm. Four drops of ink in a 55-gallon barrel of water would produce an “ink concentration” of 1 ppm.
Parts Per Billion (PPB): One part per billion is 1 part in 1,000,000,000. One drop of ink in one of the largest tanker trucks used to haul gasoline would represent 1 ppb.
The difference between 1 ppm and 1 ppb is important. A prestigious scientific journal recently reported the concentration of a substance as 0.5-1.5 ppm. The real value was 0.5-1.5 ppb. The difference between $1 and $1000!
PPM = mg/L, mg/Kg, ug/mL, uL/L
PPB = ug/L, ug/Kg
1 ppb = 0.001 ppm
1 ppm = 1000 ppb
20000 ug/L = 20 mg/L
0.002 mg/Kg = 2 ug/Kg
PPM = Parts Per Million PPB = Parts Per Billion
Milligrams per Liter = mg/L
Milligrams per Killogram = mg/Kg
Micrograms per Liter = ug/L
Micrograms per Killigram = ug/Kg
Micrograms per Milliliter = ug/uL
Microliters per Liter = uL/L
Parts Per Trillion (PPT): A unit of concentration used to measure vanishingly small levels of pollutants or contaminants in, for example, body fluids. One ppt is 1 part in 1,000,000,000,000. One drop of ink distributed through the water contained in a total of 4 of the 3-million-gallon reservoirs pictured would result in a final concentration of 1 ppt.
The remarkable advances in the sensitivity of modern analytical techniques make it possible to detect some substances at the ppt level whose presence would not have been detected using earlier assay methods.
Parts Per Quadrillion (PPQ): One ppq is 1 part in 1,000,000,000,000,000 or 1 in 1015. Even the most modern analytical techniques cannot measure a pollutant such as dioxin in this range. However, mathematical models based on the tiny amounts of dioxin still produced during the manufacture of paper suggest that dioxin is being released in the ppq range by paper mills in the state of Maine (U.S.) Using another mathematical model, the concept of collective dose, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that these undetectable levels of dioxin in river water downstream of one mill will kill, or prevent from hatching, as many as six baby bald eagles over the next five years.
PPM = mg/L, mg/Kg, ug/mL, uL/L
PPB = ug/L, ug/Kg
1 ppb = 0.001 ppm
1 ppm = 1000 ppb
20000 ug/L = 20 mg/L
0.002 mg/Kg = 2 ug/Kg
How to Find Gold
California Gold Rush History (1848–1855) instigated on January 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill. James Marshall’s discovery of a nugget that was the size of a dime in the tailrace of Sutter’s Mill started this frenzy. A man named Sam Brannan was the one that announced that gold had been found in the American River and showed a bottle full of gold nuggets. James Marshall found a gold nugget that had the size of a dime in the tailrace of Sutter’s Mill.
Process Flowsheets of Gold Plants
DIFFERENT WAYS OF DOING GOLD CONCENTRATION
Process Flowsheet – Special Gold Deposits
Placer deposits early provided man with the first samples of gold and since that time have accounted for a large production of the metal. If we include the Witwatersrand and other quartz-pebble conglomerates as fossil placers or modified fossil placers, then the placer type of deposit has provided more than two-thirds of man’s store of gold.
Before proceeding further certain terms with respect to placers should be defined.
The term ‘placer’ is evidently of Spanish derivation and was used by the early Spanish miners in both North and South America as a name for gold deposits found in the sands and gravels of streams. Originally, it seems to have meant ‘sand bank’ or ‘a place in a stream where gold was deposited’. While many other terms have been coined for deposits in weathered residuum and alluvium none is quite as succinct and expressive as ‘placer’.
The terminology of the zone or stratum containing an economic concentration of gold in eluvial and alluvial placers is varied. We shall use the miner’s term ‘pay streak’, which is commonly used in Canada and the United States. Other English terms in use include ‘pay gravel’, ‘pay sand’, ‘pay dirt’, ‘pay wash’, ‘pay channel’, ‘pay lead’, ‘run of gold’, ‘gutter’ and ‘wash dirt’.
The tenor of pay streaks or of placer gold gravels and sands, in general, is referred to by the value (in ounces, grams, pennyweights, or in any unit of currency) per cubic yard or meter, per running length (foot or meter) of channel, per surface unite of cross-section, or per unit of surface (square foot or meter); also occasionally in bonanzas by dollars or some other unit of currency per pan. Note that placer deposits can be worked whose gold content is as low as 0.1 ppm.
The pay streaks of placer deposits may rest on or near bedrock or on some stratum above bedrock. The bedrock in placer deposits is commonly referred to as the ‘true bottom’, although the term is little used today. When the streaks rest on a well-defined stratum of sand, gravel, or clay above the bedrock they are said to be on a ‘false bottom’.
Placers have been variously categorized, but here we shall use a simple nomenclature based upon whether the placers are formed by concentration of gold in situ over or in the immediate vicinity of primary deposits, namely ‘residual’ or ‘eluvial placers’, or by agencies that have concentrated the gold in the near vicinity or at some distance from the primary source. In the latter category we recognize ‘alluvial’, ‘beach’ and ‘aeolian placers’. The terms ‘saprolite’ or ‘saprolitic placer’ were formerly used for certain types of eluvial placers, mainly in the eastern United States.
Eluvial, alluvial, beach and aeolian placers may become buried after their formation and are sometimes referred to as ‘buried placers’.
These placers may be buried under:
* volcanic deposits as in California and Australia;
* glacial deposits as in Canada and Russia;
* talus and other slope deposits;
* aeolian deposits as in Australia;
* alluvial sands and gravels;
* marine and lacustrine deposits.
The gold in auriferous placers may come from one or more of the following sources:
* Auriferous quartz veins and other types of gold-bearing deposits
* Auriferous sulphide impregnation zones, porphyry copper deposits.
* Auriferous polymetallic deposits.
* Slightly auriferous quartz stringers, blows and veins in schists, gneisses and various other rocks.
* Various slightly auriferous minerals such as pyrite and other sulphides in graphitic schists and other rocks.
* Slightly auriferous conglomerates, quartzites and other rocks.
* Old placers (palaeo-placers).
It should be noted that the geological history of productive placers is frequently complex, much more so than the sequence:
* primary vein or lode source.
* eluvial gold placer.
* alluvial gold placer. Often an intermediate collector of gold is involved, mainly auriferous conglomerates, quartzites, etc. A number of variants are recognized in the lode-placer sequence as follows:
(a) lode – deluvial placer – interceptor – alluvial placer,
(b) lode – interceptor – alluvial placer,
(c) interceptor – alluvial placer.
The primary agent that produces the various types of gold placer is weathering; a process that involves numerous complex chemical reactions. Three things may happen to gold in primary deposits:
1. The gangue minerals may be disintegrated and leached away, leaving the gold relatively untouched; the gold may remain in situ in the oxidized zones or pass into eluvial and alluvial placers;
2. The gold may be dissolved and carried far away from the deposits in which case no placers are formed; or
3. The dissolved gold may be wholly or partly reprecipitated on nuclei of gold in the residuum or on similar nuclei as they are moved along in the alluvium of streams, rivers, beaches, etc. The last process is largely responsible for nuggets.